A Forgotten Past – The Last Royal Palace of Singapore

Do you know that the former royal family of Singapore existed until the late nineties? They had lived at Istana Kampong Glam (also known as Sultan’s Palace) for generations until the Istana was drawn for redevelopment into the Malay Heritage Centre in 1999.

The story goes all the way back to the 19th century.

The 18th ruler of Johor, Sultan Hussein Mua’zzam Shah ibni Mahmud Shah Alam (1776-1835), built the original Istana Kampong Glam at Beach Road in 1819 after he signed a treaty with Sir Stamford Raffles, ceding Singapore to the British as a trading post. His eldest son, Sultan Ali Iskandar Shah (died 1877), hired Irish architect George Drumgoole Colemanl (1795-1844) to build a new palace, designed with a mixture of English and Malay elements, to replace the old one in 1840.

Sultan Ali gave the Istana to his son Tengku Alam Shah (1846-1891), while spending the last few years of his life in Melaka (Malacca). By then, the power of the Johor Sultan was diminishing, overshadowed by the Temenggong. Temenggong was the local chieftain who acted as a vassal to the sultan, providing military support and sometimes exerting huge influence in the state affairs.

In a bid to claim the sovereignty of Johor, Raja Temenggong Tun Daeng Ibrahim (died 1862) entered negotiations with Sultan Ali in 1855 with the support of the British. The outcome was that Sultan Ali retained the rights of his Kesang territories at Muar and received a monthly allowance, but had to formally give up his sultanship and rule of Johor. He would still be recognised as the Sultan of Singapore though.

When Sultan Ali died in 1877, his Kesang territories went into a succession dispute. The lands were ceded through an electorate to Daeng Ibrahim’s son Abu Bakar (1833-1895), instead of Tengku Alam, Sultan Ali’s son. Tengku Alam tried to launch a civil war in 1879, known as Jementah Civil War, in an attempt to recover his properties and sultanship, but the uprising was easily quashed by the British. In 1885, the Temenggong family officially took over the rule of Johor when Abu Bakar proclaimed himself as the sultan. He became the 21st Sultan of Johor and was later widely regarded as the father of modern Johor.

A bitter Tengku Alam returned to Istana Kampong Glam of Singapore, where he died in 1891 at an age of only 46. His supporters still regarded him as the true Sultan of Johor. In 1896, the family of Tengku Alam fought over the inheritance rights of the Istana, giving the British the chance to take over the estate as state land. However, the Sultan Hussien Ordinance of 1905 allowed the descendants of the royal family to continue living in the estate and claiming allowance from the British colonial government.

After independence, the Singapore government also allowed the royal descendants to continue staying in Istana Kampong Glam. They were given $250,000 to $350,000 annually in the nineties until the Istana was selected for conservation and restoration in 2001. The descendants of the royal family of Sultan Hussien, formerly the rightful owner of Singapore, left the Istana and were seldom heard of since then.

So how many Istana (palace in Malay) are there in Singapore?

The royal Istana that once existed in Singapore were Istana Lama, Istana Tyersall, Istana Woodneuk and Istana Bidadari. Istana Kampong Glam is the only one left standing today.

Sultan Abu Bakar’s grandfather Temenggong Abdul Rahman (died 1825) had an Istana Lama (old palace) built at Telok Blangah of Singapore (known as Teluk Belanga then) in 1824. The European-styled mansion stood on a large 200 acres of land given by the British as a resettlement deal after the 1819 treaty. Today, Temenggong Mosque (built in 1890) stands in its place. Temenggong Abdul Rahman and his son Temenggong Daeng Ibrahim were buried in a tomb beside the mosque. Both the mosque and royal tomb are still owned by the Johor Sultanate.

Abu Bakar himself was born at Telok Blangah, succeeding the ownership of the estate and title of Temenggong in 1862 from his father Daeng Ibrahim. After moving out of Telok Blangah, he bought the land near the Botanic Gardens to build a grand red-roofed mansion known as Istana Tyersall, which was completed in 1892, three years before his death. It was one of the first residences in Singapore powered with electricity, and was furnished with extravagant ornaments and furniture. It also had a 21m-tall tower decorated with a symbolic crescent and star. Istana Tyersall, however, was destroyed in a fire in 1905.

On a nearby hill, Sultan Abu Bakar built another majestic blue-roofed house for his beloved fourth wife Sultana Khadijah. It was Istana Woodneuk, often confused with Istana Tyersall but was just as grand during its heydays. In 1930, the house was renovated by Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar (1873-1959), son of Sultan Abu Bakar and the 22nd Sultan of Johor. Today, it is surrounded by thick overgrown vegetation along Holland Road, forgotten and in ruins. The land where the house is standing on still belongs to the Sultan of Johor.

Istana Bidadari was the birthplace of Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar, whose mother was Zubaidah binti Abdullah (Cecilia Catharina Lange), the Danish wife of Sultan Abu Bakar. The palace was located on a 45-acre of land at Bidadari Estate in Serangoon district. In 1904, the colonial government acquired the land and turned it into the Bidadari Cemetery for Muslims, Hindus, Singhalese and Christians. The cemetery was closed for burials in 1972 and was cleared by 2001 to make way for the North-East MRT Line.

Johor Sultanate’s administrative capital was shifted to Tanjung Puteri (present-day Johor Baru) from Telok Blangah in 1866, but the Johor royalty continued to build their residences in Singapore in order to maintain a presence here.

The most famous Istana in Singapore is none other than the one at Orchard Road, which is the official office and residence for the President of Singapore and is not related to the Johor Sultanate.

It was constructed in 1869 by British architect John Frederick Adolphus McNair on the orders of Singapore’s first colonial governor Sir Harry Saint George Ord (1819-1885). Also formerly known as the Government House and Istana Negara Singapura, it was occupied by 21 colonial governors, two Yang di-Pertuan Negara (Head of State) and six Presidents of Singapore (although no Presidents have lived there since 1959). In between, it was also forcefully occupied by the Japanese forces during the Second World War. The Istana was gazetted as a national monument in 1992.

Inside the compound of the Istana, there is also this beautiful house known as Istana Villa. It was built in 1908 as the official residence for the Aide-De-Camp, Private Secretary of the Governor of Straits Settlement. The black and white colonial bungalow became the Attorney-General’s home in 1958.

From independence to 1984, the bungalow was used as a state residence for prestigious foreign guests, such as China’s Deng Xiaoping and Malaysia’s Dr Mahathir Mohamad.

Published: 21 February 2012

Updated: 03 October 2012

This entry was posted in Historic. Bookmark the permalink.

51 Responses to A Forgotten Past – The Last Royal Palace of Singapore

  1. couldn’t help but tie its remains to a book i bought from kinokuniya titled ‘Gedung Kuning’ who claims that her family bought over the Istana at kampong glam in 1912 and was the sole proprietors of the house till 1999 when the government ‘reacquired’ it. – http://www.gedungkuning.com/history/index.htm

    at least, the author did not claim to be or royal lineage but embedded the istana instead with her memories of a family legacy :) too bad the rest are long gone and lay in ruins but good to know at least some still want to remember the good old days.

  2. ChuaWC says:

    Teluk Belanga is the correct modern-day Malay spelling. Telok Blangah is the old spelling.

  3. Here is a piece of History, many of us are unaware of…Tania this one for you.

  4. rockstar says:

    I could see more stories about singapore in http://untoldhistoriesofmalaya.blogspot.com/.. they put it in the wrong place

  5. Dee says:

    There was also an Istana @ P.Tekong Besar called Istana Merak. Unfortunately I could not find any information abt it anywhere. I was lucky to get the info from an ex-villager, probably the oldest one still around. Anybody has any info??

  6. Dee says:

    Sorry, let me rephrase my 1st comment (11 April 2012) – There was also an Istana @ P.Tekong Besar called Istana Merak. Unfortunately I could not find any information abt it anywhere. I was told abt this by an ex-villager, probably the oldest one still around. Hopefully someone knows abt this….

  7. Errol G says:

    Truly a treasure trove for all. Thank you.

    Just one little comment on the Istana Bidadari where you wrote: “Istana Bidadari was the birthplace of Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar, whose mother was Zubaidah binti Abdullah (Cecilia Catharina Lange), the English wife of Sultan Abu Bakar.

    Celillia Lange was of Danish extract. Some of her Lange relatives – grand-nephews etc – are still around in Singapore and a few are my cousins by marriage.
    Best wishes.

    • ebal says:

      Errol G
      Perhaps we are related somehow :)
      As we are told by some relatives that we are the descendants of the Sultan Daeng Tengku Abdul Rahman i.e the father of Sultan Daeng Tengku Ibrahim. Lots of mysteries, indeed.

      • prince says:

        Hi ebal,
        Perhaps i can help you, if you want to know abt your descendants.. you may watsapp me at 90685071 – prince hamz

  8. Mohamad Hamim Bin Aliyas says:

    Interesting history of Singapore. Majulah Singapura.

  9. I found this old photo (c 1900) of “Istana Tyersall”, but its front facade looks different from the one in the article…

    • Rupert q says:

      The post card was mislabelled. This is actually the residence of the first chief minister of Johor. The building still exists in Johor Bahru. It is located on a hill called “Bukit Senyum” or “Smiling Hill” in English.

      • tengku abdul matin says:

        hi my name is tengku abdul matin i’m royal family from singapore cucu tengku alam son of tengku putri kalau nak tahu pasal istana kampong gelam pls call me 96110552 tq

      • ebal says:

        Hi Tengku Abdul matin
        We are told that we are the descendants of Sultan Temenggong Abdul Rahman. Tengku Molek and Tengku cantik used to come to our late grandma’s house at old Bedok village, before the “confrontation” took place. So far my brother is only abled to trace our lineage up to Tengku Hamid. Do you have any idea about Tengku Molek and Tengku Cantik? and also a lady named Khadijah who is/was a professor as she is able to know about the lineage.
        Thank you.

  10. Dee says:

    Istana Ayer Gemuruh?

    • Good find!

      Not much online info about it… It supposed to be the Johor Sultan’s resort palace that once stood at Wing Loong Road (now defunct) before the sixties. Wing Loong Road was somewhere near present-day West Perimeter Road in Changi, and there was a Kampong Ayer Gemuruh nearby as well as a stream called Sungei Ayer Gemuruh.

      In the 1970s, the government kicked off a massive land reclamation of about 13 sq km in Changi for the construction of the new airport, and hundreds of buildings, kampongs and graves in this eastern part of Singapore were demolished. The coastline was shifted almost 5km towards the east.

      • Dee says:

        Nice info… n really cool name for a place – ‘Ayer Gemuruh’

      • ebal says:

        In 1970’s I was living just opposite the kampong Ayer Gemuruh and having a few friends who were residing there. I could still remember that there was a spring water which had never stopped to flow thus giving the people there a source of water supply. It was amazing, indeed.

  11. Rupert q says:

    http://remembersingapore.wordpress.com/2012/02/21/last-royal-palace-of-singapore/

    This is more information about the “lost” Istana Merak in Pulau Tekong Besar…

  12. palamirtam marimuthu says:

    the johore owners shld do something abt their land…

  13. tengku abdul matin says:

    sape2 tahu pasal istana kampong gelam kt singapore pls kol saya +6583094788

    • ebal says:

      My cousin used to live in that Istana and I happened got the chance to visit them there, once. We are told that we are the descendants of the Sultan of Johore that was why my cousin was allowed to live there. We are still tracing our lineage but not that easy, though.
      Perhaps checking by using DNA would solve the mysteries :)

      • Daingputra says:

        Hai ebal : Bolih saya tau siapa anda? Bcos cerita u yg tengku molek n tengku cantek visit ur grandma at kampong bedok exactly the same story yg i dengar frm my father. That grandma juga my grandma. Ada kah kita bersedara ? Saya juga sedang mencari silsilah keluarga yg ada kaitan dgn temenggong daing abdul rahman. Bolih saya tau siapa tengku hamid n macam mana lineage family sampai ke tengku hamid ? Terima kasih. Waiting for ur reply…..

    • Daingputra says:

      Hi tengku abdul matin : since u are frm the royal family lineage, saya ingin bertanya pada tengku do you know the decendent of temenggong daing abdul rahman in spore ? N maybe do u have the family tree of temenggong? Because i was told by my late father that we are the decendent of temenggong but i could not trace the lineage. The info i got frm my late father is exactly the same as one member frm this forum ( ebal) . Perhap u have some info to help me. Terima kasih. Waiting for ur reply….

      • CikPuanAnn says:

        Hi Daingputra,
        We have the genealogy scroll of Temenggong Abdul Rahman (family tree) made and done in the year 1937 under the order and command of HH Sir Ibrahim.
        We are in the midst of tracing the rest of the descendants of Temenggong Abdul Rahman of which most of them are already in one registered society in Johor.
        If you have valid evidence of your connection with Temenggong Abdul Rahman, you are invited to join us as one big family.

      • Zailan Mohd (DaingPutra) says:

        Im so grateful of your reply. I wanted to know what kind of valid evidence that i need to bring. What i have are the video cd of my late father interviewed by me and the drafted family tree according to my late father info. Do you have email so can post this drafted family tree to you. Hopefully, you and your relatives know any names in this drafted family tree. According to my late father, Tengku Molek and Tengku Cantek used to visit him (kampong Bedok Singapore) and ‘dukung’ him and his grandmother (Badariah@Dara) used to visit them at Istana Johor.

      • CikPuanAnn says:

        Great to hear from you.
        You can email it to my hubby’s: ungkujoey72@gmail.com
        Btw….we gonna have annual general meeting this coming 29th December at English College Hall in JB.
        If you feel you are connected to Temenggung Abdul Rahman, you are most welcome to attend.
        We have registration booth for new members too after verification of the descendant status.

      • DaingPutra says:

        Salaam Cik Puan Ann,
        I found out that Temenggong Abdul Rahman 3rd wife is a lady from tanjung surat. unfortunately there are not much info about his 3rd wife and the descendants. As i understand that tanjung surat is at johor lama. According to my late father his datuk/moyang that are from temenggong are from johor lama. Do you have any info about the lady frm tanjung surat (3rd wife of Temenggong Abdul Rahman) and her descendants or any of her descendants that already registered in the family tree society as you mentioned earlier ? Im still searching and looking for the connection as this is the wish of my late father. (p/s : I already email my drafted family tree and my father n mother photos to your hubby’s email. Did you receive it ? )
        Thank you.

      • DaingPutra says:

        Thank you for your info, Im so pleased to know that Temenggong Abdul Rahman had 12 children from all his 3 wives. I only know 7 names of 12. Also thank for the confirmation of his 3rd wife a lady frm tanjung surat. I have post some info to your hubby’s email. Btw, how am i to be able to see the genealogy schroll that you mentioned ?

      • CikPuanAnn says:

        Wassalam Daingputra,
        Temenggong Abdul Rahman had 12 children from all his 3 wives.
        And yes, he had a 3rd wife from Tg Surat but details of her was still a mystery.
        The current Sultan of Johore is from Temenggong Abdul Rahman’s youngest son (Daing Ibrahim) lineage after Daing Ibrahim took over the throne from his elder brother (Tun Haji Abdullah) with British involvement.
        The British paid a monthly sum to Tun Haji Abdullah which was managed by Daing Ibrahim. This was confirmed by Bonham, the Singapore Governer at that time.
        The genealogy scroll by HRH Sir Ibrahim in 1937 had names of Temenggong Abdul Rahman descendants.
        Perhaps there are few names in it that might be familiar to your own family tree.
        My hubby havent checked his email. Kinda busy of late.
        Will look into it soonest possible.
        TQ for your reply.

      • DaingPutra says:

        Salaam, CikPuanAnn…
        After reviewing your latest info and comparing it to my late father’s info, i found some interesting notes. I searched tru the names of Temenggong Daing Ibrahim children and i found out there are some names that attracted my attention such as Daeng Abdul Rahman s/o Temenggong Daing Ibrahim with Tengku Andak (d/o Sultan Abdul Rahman I Muazzam Shah-Riau/lingga). After going tru again the info frm my aunt, she did mention that my father salasilah is frm Sultan Ibrahim ( frm my understanding is that old folks always refer Temenggong Daing Ibrahim as Sultan Ibrahim that is because Sultan Ali (Singapore) ceded the throne to him. At beginning i’m a bit confused, which one that my aunt refering to between Temenggong Daing Ibrahim with his grandson HH Sultan Sir Ibrahim. After looking at the year such as birth date, Temenggong Daing Ibrahim was born in 1810, so considering his children birth date will be around 1830 onward. So I think Temenggong Daing Ibrahim should be the one that is mentioned by my aunt as Sultan Ibrahim. Because my Great great grandfather Daing Abdul Rahman born around 1832 ? and my Great grandfather Daing Sapeh born around 1857 ? and my grangfather Daing Osman born in 1882. So, im not sure Daeng Abdul Rahman and Daing Abdul Rahman (my g g gfather) are the same person ?

      • DaingPutra says:

        Salam CikPuanAnn, Semoga Sihat2 bersama family. Are there any info or clues frm my drafted family tree ? and where is the place to see the genealogy schroll of Temenggong Abdul Rahman ?
        Thank you.

      • ZakBahrom says:

        I’m interested to discuss the lady from Tanjung Surat. I am the 8th generation from that branch. It is all “allegedly”, “supposedly”, “apparently” since I cannot verify them in any official records. Family legends (if I can call it that) say that she was a dancer that caught the eyes of the Temenggong. What happened next is what they “allegedly”, “supposedly”, “apparently” call it history.

      • DaingPutra says:

        Salam perkenalan to ZakBahrom. Im glad that you reply to my post. Im still searching to establish the missing link of my late father’s connection to Temenggong Abdul Rahaman. One of which, maybe frm the lady of tanjung surat ( any name ?) and the other one maybe frm Temenggong Daing Ibrahim. The info that my late father given to me, eg some names such as Tengku Molek and Tengku Cantek that will be directly to Temenggong Daing Ibrahim lineage (descendants) by HH Sultan Ibrahim to Tengku Haris Abu Bakar (Tengku Molek’s father). The other clue is that of Johor Lama. I would be glad if you could share information about the lady frm tanjung surat, such as her descendants frm Temenggong Abdul Rahman. Maybe i can get some clue frm the names list of her descendants. May i know you frm Singapore or Johor ? Thank you for your reply. Hopefully we can establish the missing link and be in one big family. Insya’Allah…

      • ZakBahrom says:

        Salam DaingPutra, I think you are mixing things up. Here’s the lineage:

        1. Temenggong Daeng Abdul Rahman bin Tun Abdul Hamid
        2. Temenggong Daeng Ibrahim bin Daeng Abdul Rahman
        3. Sultan Abu Bakar ibni Daeng Ibrahim
        4. Sultan Ibrahim ibni Sultan Abu Bakar
        5. Sultan Ismail ibni Sultan Ibrahim
        6. Sultan Iskandar ibni Sultan Ismail
        7. Sultan Ibrahim ibni Sultan Iskandar

        Tunku Chantek and Tunku Molek are the granddaughters of Sultan Ibrahim (4). The lady from Tanjung Surat is allegedly married to Temenggong Abdul Rahman (1). Apparently, all the descendants of this lady is supposed to have Wan before their names. The rest have the Ungku/Engku, except for the Sultan’s descendants which carry Tunku.

        We are using this blog to discuss something that is beyond this platform, sorry guys. This will go on back and forth, so why don’t we communicate privately. Here’s my email: zakbahrom@gmail.com

  14. Aminurasyid says:

    Tuan. u just change ur handphone from 96110552 to 83094788?
    Will call u once free to discuss on Kpg Gelam matter.

  15. Mata Nusantara says:

    Singapore sultan Hussein descendants Tengku Shawal now and family is still doing their royal Adat and they are recognized by PAP as sultan Hussein family and still received 330k sgd renewal till this day . They are residing in Singapore living a normal life like us

    Anyone Tengku from Malaysia wanna claim they are his family are liars only the ones in Singapore former residence of kampung gelam and under sultan Hussein ordinance of Singapore government are the true heirs.

    Tengku Shawal still goes Bintan Indonesian Riau and Malaysian states for Adat and silat invitations . Formalities
    http://statutes.agc.gov.sg/aol/search/display/view.w3p;page=0;query=DocId%3A3f83eb70-0e42-4e54-8eeb-bc0cca8e7c8c%20%20Status%3Ainforce%20Depth%3A0;rec=0

    • Thanks for that link! Valuable information

    • Rakyat Setia says:

      Hmmmm somehow I doubt that Shawal’s family still receives $330k per year. Unless you are part of Tengku Shawal’s family and receiving that money, I doubt that is true. If it is true, then the money is no properly distributed to the “Rightful Decedents”. check out: http://www.royalark.net/Malaysia/johor8.htm for Sultan Hussein’s genealogy. The rightful decedents that have claims over the Sultanate in Singapore are keeping a low profile and not living up to their rights as Royalty. They need to step up and claim their rightful place.

      • 123ABC says:

        There are plenty of Sultan Hussein’s descendants out there, in Singapore, Malaysia etc living a normal life and keeping a low profile. I’ve read in a few newspaper articles of the past, they did try to claim their rights however were ignored, therefore many just gave up and moved on. Probably only Tengku Shawal’s family (and a few others) are the only ones receving the $330k… Just my thought..

  16. Thomas says:

    My Daughter is doing a school project. Need to research “Royalty” roads in Singapore. Could anyone give advice what is “Royalty” roads means, example of this road names and how it is named?
    Thanks

  17. The abandoned Istana Bukit Zaharah at Johor Bahru

    Beautiful.. hope they will preserve this magnificent house


    Upon its completion in 1858, this building was used specifically for royal ceremonies such as the inauguration of the sultan and royal weddings. The ground level was used as a museum for the antique cars of Sultan Abu Bakar and Sultan Ibrahim.

    Upon the completion of Sultan Abu Bakar Grand Palace, the royal residence was moved to the new palace and this building was left vacant. From the 1970s until the end of 1980s this building was used as the Bukit Zaharah Religious School. However, when the religious school was moved to a new building in Jalan Yahya Awal, the building was left abandoned until today.

    The design concept of this building reflects the influence of western architecture. This is clearly shown in the plan and elevation of the building. The plan, which is in the shape of a letter ‘t’ is similar to the clover flower split into four. The design is chosen to accommodate four main groups of foreign dignitaries like the Malays, English, Chinese and Indians during the royal functions.

    The Western architectural features can be seen in the use of classical ionic columns, decorative plasters for the outer walls and interiors of the building and decorative glass above the windows and doors of keystone shape. Similar to other western architectural features, the windows of this building are of segmental shape.

    (Source: http://buildingconservation.blogspot.sg/2009/06/istana-bukit-zaharah-1858-johor-bahru.html)

  18. tengku abdul matin says:

    Aminurasyit sorry saya pergi malaysia baru alik singapore kalau nak kol saya boleh la kol saya skrg my nw no 85869573

  19. ZakBahrom says:

    “Tengku Alam tried to launch a civil war in 1879, known as Jementah Civil War, in an attempt to recover his properties and sultanship, but the uprising was easily quashed by the British.”
    You are wrong on two counts. Tengku Alam did not try, he did launch a civil war. He won the first battle, but unfortunately lost the war. The British just stood aside. It was the Temenggong’s men and supporters that fought the war “http://mediumnetwork.tripod.com/perang.html”. My great-great-grandfather was involved and was rewarded well. Unfortunately, all the rewards in Muar slipped out of the family’s hands.

    Sultan Hussein was never the Sultan of Johor!! It was his younger brother Sultan Abdul Rahman who was given the succession by the Johor Royal Council (nothing to do with the British). SAR and Temenggong Abdul Rahman lobbied strongly for Sultan Hussein to be the Sultan of Johor, but were unsuccessful, due to the strict adherence to the royal selection criteria (that is another story). SAR however moved his Johor capital to Lingga away from all the potential actions.

    It was the British with the support of the Temenggong who installed Sultan Hussein as the Sultan of Singapore. At this point nobody wanted the hinterland of Johor, it was just thick jungle and deemed useless.

  20. Irwan Raman says:

    Assalamualaikum semua yang ada disini.Saya adalah seorang peminat,pengkaji sejarah Singapura secara bebas(freelance).Baru2 ini timbul rasa minat untuk mengkaji sejarah asal usul Keramat Bukit Kasita di dalam kawasan perumahan flat HDB di Bukit Purmei di Singapura.Boleh saya tahu sesiapa yang tahu dan mempunyai info2 tentang Keramat Bukit Kasita,Singapura?-Irwan Raman (irwanraman@gmail.com)

  21. saya pun nak tau lebih lanjut

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